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Photosynth Res. 2014 Nov;122(2):171-85. doi: 10.1007/s11120-014-0020-x. Epub 2014 Jun 11.

Phylogenetic analysis and molecular signatures defining a monophyletic clade of heterocystous cyanobacteria and identifying its closest relatives.

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  • 1Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8N 3Z5, Canada.


Detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses are reported on 140 genome sequenced cyanobacteria with the main focus on the heterocyst-differentiating cyanobacteria. In a phylogenetic tree for cyanobacteria based upon concatenated sequences for 32 conserved proteins, the available cyanobacteria formed 8-9 strongly supported clades at the highest level, which may correspond to the higher taxonomic clades of this phylum. One of these clades contained all heterocystous cyanobacteria; within this clade, the members exhibiting either true (Nostocales) or false (Stigonematales) branching of filaments were intermixed indicating that the division of the heterocysts-forming cyanobacteria into these two groups is not supported by phylogenetic considerations. However, in both the protein tree as well as in the 16S rRNA gene tree, the akinete-forming heterocystous cyanobacteria formed a distinct clade. Within this clade, the members which differentiate into hormogonia or those which lack this ability were also separated into distinct groups. A novel molecular signature identified in this work that is uniquely shared by the akinete-forming heterocystous cyanobacteria provides further evidence that the members of this group are specifically related and they shared a common ancestor exclusive of the other cyanobacteria. Detailed comparative analyses on protein sequences from the genomes of heterocystous cyanobacteria reported here have also identified eight conserved signature indels (CSIs) in proteins involved in a broad range of functions, and three conserved signature proteins, that are either uniquely or mainly found in all heterocysts-forming cyanobacteria, but generally not found in other cyanobacteria. These molecular markers provide novel means for the identification of heterocystous cyanobacteria, and they provide evidence of their monophyletic origin. Additionally, this work has also identified seven CSIs in other proteins which in addition to the heterocystous cyanobacteria are uniquely shared by two smaller clades of cyanobacteria, which form the successive outgroups of the clade comprising of the heterocystous cyanobacteria in the protein trees. Based upon their close relationship to the heterocystous cyanobacteria, the members of these clades are indicated to be the closest relatives of the heterocysts-forming cyanobacteria.

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