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PLoS One. 2014 Jun 9;9(6):e98671. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098671. eCollection 2014.

Effect of broccoli sprouts on nasal response to live attenuated influenza virus in smokers: a randomized, double-blind study.

Author information

  • 1Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America; Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.
  • 2Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.
  • 3Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.
  • 4University Children's Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
  • 5Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.
  • 6Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.
  • 7Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.
  • 8Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Smokers have increased susceptibility and altered innate host defense responses to influenza virus infection. Broccoli sprouts are a source of the Nrf2 activating agentsulforaphane, and short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) has been shown to reduce nasal inflammatory responses to oxidant pollutants.

OBJECTIVES:

Assess the effects of BSH on nasal cytokines, virus replication, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in smokers and nonsmokers.

METHODS:

We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effects of BSH on serially sampled nasal lavage fluid (NLF) cytokines, viral sequence quantity, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in NLF cells and biopsied epithelium. Healthy young adult smokers and nonsmokers ingested BSH or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate) for 4 days, designated Days -1, 0, 1, 2. On Day 0 they received standard vaccine dose of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) intranasally. Nasal lavage fluids and nasal biopsies were collected serially to assess response to LAIV.

RESULTS:

In area under curve analyses, post-LAIV IL-6 responses (P = 0.03) and influenza sequences (P = 0.01) were significantly reduced in NLF from BSH-treated smokers, while

NAD(P)H:

quinoneoxidoreductasein NLF cells was significantly increased. In nonsmokers, a similar trend for reduction in virus quantity with BSH did not reach statistical significance.

CONCLUSIONS:

In smokers, short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates appears to significantly reduce some virus-induced markers of inflammation, as well as reducing virus quantity. Nutritional antioxidant interventions have promise as a safe, low-cost strategy for reducing influenza risk among smokers and other at risk populations.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723.

PMID:
24910991
[PubMed - in process]
PMCID:
PMC4049587
Free PMC Article
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