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Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2014 Jun 5;239(8):899-906. [Epub ahead of print]

Paraoxonases function as unique protectors against cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: Updated experimental and clinical data.

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  • 1Department of Pharmacology, Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Buies Creek, NC 27506, USA Virginia-Tech-Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineers and Sciences, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA Department of Biology, University of North Carolina Greensboro, NC 27412, USA yli@campbell.edu z_jia@uncg.edu.
  • 2Department of Pharmacology, Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Buies Creek, NC 27506, USA.
  • 3Wofford College, Spartanburg, SC 29303, USA.
  • 4Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.
  • 5Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055, China.
  • 6Department of Biology, University of North Carolina Greensboro, NC 27412, USA.

Abstract

Paraoxonase (PON) refers to a family of three enzymes, namely PON1, PON2, and PON3. PON1 and PON3 are found in circulation bound to high-density lipoprotein, whereas PON2 is an intracellular protein. PON1 was first discovered as an enzyme to hydrolyze the organophosphate pesticide paraoxon, an activity that both PON2 and PON3 lack. All three PON enzymes are able to degrade oxidized lipids and protect against oxidative stress. PON enzymes also act to suppress inflammation. Animal studies show a critical role for PON enzymes, especially PON1 in protecting against cardiovascular diseases and related disorders, including diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In line with the findings in experimental animals, accumulating evidence from clinical research also indicates that PON enzymes function as potential protectors in human cardiovascular diseases and related disorders. Identification of PON enzymes as important players in cardiovascular health will facilitate the development of novel preventive and therapeutic modalities targeting PON enzymes to combat cardiovascular diseases and related disorders, which collectively constitute the chief contributors to the global burden of disease. This review describes the biochemical properties and molecular regulation of PON and summarizes the major recent findings on the functions of PON in protecting against cardiovascular diseases and related disorders.

© 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

KEYWORDS:

Paraoxonase; cardioprotection; cardiovascular diseases; diabetes; experimental animals; pon enzymes

PMID:
24903163
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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