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Vis Neurosci. 1989 Sep;3(3):241-8.

Neural differentiation in the retina of the larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

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  • 1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, New York University School of Medicine, New York.


The peripheral retina of the sea lamprey develops in a 5-year-long process in which only certain neurons differentiate each year. The growth of cell layers, the differentiation of the neurons, and the morphology of their dendrites and axons were studied with normal, HRP, and Golgi preparations. Ganglion cells are differentiated in 3-year-old larvae, amacrine and horizontal cells in 4-year-old larvae, photoreceptor cells in stage I transformers, and bipolar cells in stage III transformers. Each new development is expressed as a radial gradient of differentiation. As a result of this protracted and stepped process, lamprey retinal neurons, particularly ganglion cells, differentiate in the absence of other cells to which they will ultimately be connected and may express their individual genetic programs more fully than in other vertebrate retinas. This could account for the unusual relationship of the ganglion cell, inner plexiform, and optic nerve layers and for the very high ratio of displaced to orthotopic ganglion cells.

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