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J Control Release. 2014 May 24. pii: S0168-3659(14)00334-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.05.031. [Epub ahead of print]

Nanotherapy for posterior eye diseases.

Author information

  • 1University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC-Centre of Advanced Study Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India. Electronic address: indupalkaur@yahoo.com.
  • 2University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC-Centre of Advanced Study Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India.


It is assumed that more than 50% of the most enfeebling ocular diseases have their origin in the posterior segment. Furthermore, most of these diseases lead to partial or complete blindness, if left untreated. After cancer, blindness is the second most dreaded disease world over. However, treatment of posterior eye diseases is more challenging than the anterior segment ailments due to a series of anatomical barriers and physiological constraints confronted for delivery to this segment. In this regard, nanostructured drug delivery systems are proposed to defy ocular barriers, target retina, and act as permeation enhancers in addition to providing a controlled release. Since an important step towards developing effective treatment strategies is to understand the course or a route a drug molecule needs to follow to reach the target site, the first part of the present review discusses various pathways available for effective delivery to and clearance from the posterior eye. Promise held by nanocarrier systems, viz. liposomes, nanoparticles, and nanoemulsion, for effective delivery and selective targeting is also discussed with illustrative examples, tables, and flowcharts. However, the applicability of these nanocarrier systems as self-administration ocular drops is still an unrealized dream which is in itself a huge technological challenge.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Bevacizumab; Controlled release; Delivery to the vitreous; Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran; Ganciclovir (PubChem CID: 3454); Liposomes; Methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-poly(β-caprolactone); Nanoparticles; Poly(ethylene glycol); Poly(lactide-co-glycolide); Polyethyleneimine; Ranibizumab; Retina; Rostaporfin (PubChem CID: 23725012); Topical delivery; Verteporfin (PubChem CID: 5362420)

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