Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2014;43(5):20130439. doi: 10.1259/dmfr.20130439. Epub 2014 Mar 10.

Effective doses from panoramic radiography and CBCT (cone beam CT) using dose area product (DAP) in dentistry.

Author information

  • 11 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Yonsei University Dental Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.



We compared the effective dose from panoramic radiography with that from cone beam CT (CBCT) using dose area product under adult and child exposure conditions.


The effective doses of the cephalo, panorama, implant and dental modes of Alphard 3030 (Asahi Roentgen Ind., Co. Ltd, Kyoto, Japan) CBCT and the Jaw, Wide, Facial and temporomandibular joint modes of Rayscan Symphony (RAY Co., Ltd, Hwaseong, Republic of Korea) CBCT were compared with those of CRANEX(®) 3+ CEPH (Soredex Orion Corporation, Helsinki, Finland) panoramic radiography equipment under adult and child exposure conditions. Each effective dose was calculated using a conversion formula from dose area product meter measured values (VacuTec Messtechnik GmbH, Dresden, Germany). The conversion formulae used were suggested by Helmrot and Alm Carlsson and Batista et al, and they were applied with the tube voltage taken into consideration.


The maximum effective doses from the Alphard 3030 and Rayscan Symphony were 67 and 21 times greater than that from panoramic radiography, respectively. The ratios of the effective dose under the child setting to that under the adult condition were 0.60-0.62 and 0.84-0.95, and the maximum differences in effective doses between the adult and child exposure settings were equivalent to 27 and 4 times greater than a panoramic examination in the Alphard 3030 and Rayscan Symphony, respectively.


The effective CBCT doses were higher than those of panoramic radiography. The differences in effective doses between the adult and child CBCT settings were dependent on equipment type and exposure parameters. Therefore, adequate mode selection and control of exposure as well as further research are necessary to minimize the effective dose to patients, especially for radiosensitive children.


CBCT (cone beam CT); DAP (dose area product); ICRP; conversion factor; effective dose

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk