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J Affect Disord. 2014 Jul;163:25-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.03.023. Epub 2014 Mar 27.

C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, soluble tumor necrosis factor α receptor 2 and incident clinical depression.

Author information

  • 1Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: pchocano@hsph.harvard.edu.
  • 2Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
  • 3Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women׳s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
  • 4Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Québec, Canada.
  • 5Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women׳s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women׳s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women׳s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
  • 6Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women׳s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Despite an extensive literature on the role of inflammation and depression, few studies have evaluated the association between inflammatory biomarkers and depression in a prospective manner, and results are inconclusive.

METHODS:

We conducted a prospective analysis of blood levels of CRP, IL-6 and TNFα-R2 in 4756 women participating in the Nurses׳ Health Study who donated blood in 1990 and were depression-free up to 1996. Participants were followed between 1996 and 2008 for reports of clinical diagnosis depression or antidepressant use. Additionally, we conducted cross-sectional analyses for CRP, IL-6 and TNFα-R2 and antidepressant use at time of blood draw.

RESULTS:

After adjustment for body mass index, menopause status, use of anti-inflammatory drugs and other covariates, no significant associations between CRP, IL-6 and TNFα-R2 and incident depression were observed after a follow-up of 6-18 years. However, menopause status appears to modify the association between IL-6 and depression risk. In cross-sectional analyses, TNFα-R2 was associated with antidepressant use (OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.23-3.13, P-trend=0.001), but no significant associations were found for CRP and IL-6.

LIMITATIONS:

Depression diagnosis was first assessed in 1996, 6 years after blood draw. However the biomarkers have high within-person correlations with measurements 4 years apart.

CONCLUSIONS:

Blood levels of CRP, IL-6 and TNFα-R2 were not associated with incident depression over a follow-up of 6-18 years. In cross-sectional analyses, antidepressant use may be associated with higher levels of TNFα-R2 but no associations with depression or antidepressant use were observed in the prospective analysis.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

C-reactive protein; Depression; Inflammation; Interleukin-6; Prospective study; Soluble tumor necrosis factor – receptor 2

PMID:
24836084
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4029945
[Available on 2015-07-01]
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