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Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014 Mar;16(3):e13954. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.13954. Epub 2014 Mar 5.

Protective role of endogenous ovarian hormones against learning and memory impairments and brain tissues oxidative damage induced by lipopolysaccharide.

Author information

  • 1Neurocognitive Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran.
  • 2Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran.
  • 3Department of Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University of Tehran, Tehran, IR Iran.
  • 4Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The contribution of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been widely reported. The effects of female gonadal hormones in both neuroinflammation and brain cognitive functions have also been well considered.

OBJECTIVES:

In the present study, the possible protective role for endogenous ovarian hormones against learning and memory impairment as well as brain tissues oxidative damage induced by lipopolysachride (LPS) was investigated in rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

THE RATS WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS: Sham-LPS, Ovariectomized (OVX)-LPS, Sham, and OVX. The animals of sham group were in proestrous phase in which the serum concentration of estradiol is high. The Sham-LPS and OVX-LPS groups were treated with LPS (250 µg/kg) before acquisition. The animals were examined using passive avoidance (PA) test. The brains were then removed and malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol groups concentrations were measured.

RESULTS:

The time latency to enter the dark compartment by OVX-LPS group was shorter than that of OVX at both first and 24th hours after the shock (P < 0.05 - P < 0.001). In Sham-LPS and OVX-LPS groups, total thiol concentration in hippocampal and cortical tissues were significantly lower while MDA concentrations were higher than that of Sham and OVX groups (P < 0.05 - P < 0.001). ). The hippocampal MDA concentration in OVX-LPS group was higher than Sham- LPS group (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Brain tissue oxidative damage contributed in deleterious effects of LPS on learning and memory. Some protective effects for the endogenous ovarian hormones against damaging effects of LPS on learning and memory function, as well as brain tissues oxidative damage could be postulated; however, it needs more investigation.

KEYWORDS:

Learning; Lipopolysaccharide; Memory; Ovariectomy; Oxidative Stress

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