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Mar Drugs. 2014 May 12;12(5):2771-89. doi: 10.3390/md12052771.

Actinomycetes from Red Sea sponges: sources for chemical and phylogenetic diversity.

Author information

  • 1Department of Botany II, Julius-von-Sachs Institute for Biological Sciences, University of Würzburg, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 3, Würzburg D-97082, Germany. usama.ramadan@uni-wuerzburg.de.
  • 2Division of Chemical & Life Sciences and Engineering and Division of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia. chen.yang@kaust.edu.sa.
  • 3Department of Botany II, Julius-von-Sachs Institute for Biological Sciences, University of Würzburg, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 3, Würzburg D-97082, Germany. hannes.horn@uni-wuerzburg.de.
  • 4Division of Chemical & Life Sciences and Engineering and Division of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia. dina.hajjar@kaust.edu.sa.
  • 5Division of Chemical & Life Sciences and Engineering and Division of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia. timothy.ravasi@kaust.edu.sa.
  • 6Department of Botany II, Julius-von-Sachs Institute for Biological Sciences, University of Würzburg, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 3, Würzburg D-97082, Germany. ute.hentschel@uni-wuerzburg.de.

Abstract

The diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges collected off Fsar Reef (Saudi Arabia) was investigated in the present study. Forty-seven actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were assigned to 10 different actinomycete genera. Eight putatively novel species belonging to genera Kocuria, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the NCBI database. PCR-based screening for biosynthetic genes including type I and type II polyketide synthases (PKS-I, PKS-II) as well as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) showed that 20 actinomycete isolates encoded each at least one type of biosynthetic gene. The organic extracts of nine isolates displayed bioactivity against at least one of the test pathogens, which were Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, human parasites, as well as in a West Nile Virus protease enzymatic assay. These results emphasize that marine sponges are a prolific resource for novel bioactive actinomycetes with potential for drug discovery.

PMID:
24824024
[PubMed - in process]
PMCID:
PMC4052315
Free PMC Article

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