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Hypertension. 2014 Jul;64(1):69-76. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.03353. Epub 2014 May 5.

Mediterranean diet reduces 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids: one-year randomized, clinical trial.

Author information

  • 1From the Lipid Clinic, Endocrinology and Nutrition Service (M.D., A.S.-V., E.R.) and Hypertension and Vascular Risk Unit, Department of Internal Medicine (M.D., R.E., A.C.), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain; Ciber Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain (M.D., P.R., J.L., F.J.G.d.l.C., A.S.-V., R.d.l.T., D.C., J.S.-S., V.R.-G., R.-M.L.-R., E.T., R.E., E.R.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (P.R., J.L., F.J.G.d.l.C.); Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain (R.d.l.T.); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C.); Human Nutrition Department, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S.); Instituto de la Grasa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Seville, Spain (V.R.-G.); Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, XaRTA, INSA, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (R.-M.L.-R.); and Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Facultad de Medicina-Clínica, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (E.T.).
  • 2From the Lipid Clinic, Endocrinology and Nutrition Service (M.D., A.S.-V., E.R.) and Hypertension and Vascular Risk Unit, Department of Internal Medicine (M.D., R.E., A.C.), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain; Ciber Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain (M.D., P.R., J.L., F.J.G.d.l.C., A.S.-V., R.d.l.T., D.C., J.S.-S., V.R.-G., R.-M.L.-R., E.T., R.E., E.R.); Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Seville, San Pablo Health Center, Seville, Spain (P.R., J.L., F.J.G.d.l.C.); Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain (R.d.l.T.); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (D.C.); Human Nutrition Department, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain (J.S.-S.); Instituto de la Grasa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Seville, Spain (V.R.-G.); Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, XaRTA, INSA, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (R.-M.L.-R.); and Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Facultad de Medicina-Clínica, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (E.T.). eros@clinic.ub.es.

Abstract

The PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial showed that Mediterranean diets (MedDiets) supplemented with either extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced cardiovascular events, particularly stroke, compared with a control, lower fat diet. The mechanisms of cardiovascular protection remain unclear. We evaluated the 1-year effects of supplemented MedDiets on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP), blood glucose, and lipids. Randomized, parallel-design, controlled trial was conducted in 2 PREDIMED sites. Diets were ad libitum, and no advice on increasing physical activity or reducing sodium intake was given. Participants were 235 subjects (56.5% women; mean age, 66.5 years) at high cardiovascular risk (85.4% with hypertension). Adjusted changes from baseline in mean systolic BP were -2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.0 to -0.5) mm Hg and -2.6 (95% CI, -4.3 to -0.9) mm Hg in the MedDiets with olive oil and the MedDiets with nuts, respectively, and 1.7 (95% CI, -0.1 to 3.5) mm Hg in the control group (P<0.001). Respective changes in mean diastolic BP were -1.2 (95% CI, -2.2 to -0.2), -1.2 (95% CI, -2.2 to -0.2), and 0.7 (95% CI, -0.4 to 1.7) mm Hg (P=0.017). Daytime and nighttime BP followed similar patterns. Mean changes from baseline in fasting blood glucose were -6.1, -4.6, and 3.5 mg/dL (P=0.016) in the MedDiets with olive oil, MedDiets with nuts, and control diet, respectively; those of total cholesterol were -11.3, -13.6, and -4.4 mg/dL (P=0.043), respectively. In high-risk individuals, most with treated hypertension, MedDiets supplemented with extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced 24-hour ambulatory BP, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL:

http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639.

© 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

KEYWORDS:

blood pressure; clinical trials, randomized; diet, Mediterranean; nuts; olive oil

PMID:
24799608
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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