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Int J Pharm. 2014 Aug 15;470(1-2):77-87. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.04.028. Epub 2014 May 1.

Monitoring process induced attrition of drug substance particles within formulated blends.

Author information

  • 1Drug Product Science & Technology, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Reeds Lane, Moreton, Wirral CH46 1QW, UK. Electronic address:
  • 2Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK.
  • 3Drug Product Science & Technology, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Reeds Lane, Moreton, Wirral CH46 1QW, UK.


The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of unit processing steps such as blending, cone milling and powder feeding systems on the particle size of a formulated API. The particle properties of a single component (API) within formulated samples were tracked using an image based particle characterisation system with an integrated Raman probe. In addition to the primary aim, the impact of excipient selection was also assessed. The study demonstrated the ability to track the size and shape of particles of a single component within a blended system. Process induced attrition can affect significant changes in the size and shape characteristics of the API particles. Whilst blending and cone milling were found to have minimal impact on the API properties, significant particle attrition was induced through transmission of the formulations through a powder feeding system. The impact of excipients within the formulated blends on API attrition propensity was observed to be low. The findings suggest that the propensity for particles to undergo process induced attrition should be taken into consideration when designing a manufacturing process and/or relating initial particle properties to the performance of intermediate or final dosage forms.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Attrition; Imaging; Particle size; Pharmaceuticals; Raman spectroscopy

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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