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Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jul;158(1):118-127.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2014.04.016. Epub 2014 Apr 29.

The relationship of major American dietary patterns to age-related macular degeneration.

Author information

  • 1Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address: CJ.Chiu@tufts.edu.
  • 2Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Boston, Massachusetts.
  • 3Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts.
  • 4Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
  • 5Age-Related Eye Disease Study Coordinating Center, The EMMES Corporation, Rockville, Maryland.
  • 6Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

We hypothesized that major American dietary patterns are associated with risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study.

METHODS:

We classified 8103 eyes in 4088 eligible participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). They were classified into control (n = 2739), early AMD (n = 4599), and advanced AMD (n = 765) by the AREDS AMD Classification System. Food consumption data were collected by using a 90-item food frequency questionnaire.

RESULTS:

Two major dietary patterns were identified by factor (principal component) analysis based on 37 food groups and named Oriental and Western patterns. The Oriental pattern was characterized by higher intake of vegetables, legumes, fruit, whole grains, tomatoes, and seafood. The Western pattern was characterized by higher intake of red meat, processed meat, high-fat dairy products, French fries, refined grains, and eggs. We ranked our participants according to how closely their diets line up with the 2 patterns by calculating the 2 factor scores for each participant. For early AMD, multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) from generalized estimating equation logistic analysis comparing the highest to lowest quintile of the Oriental pattern score was ORE5O = 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.91; Ptrend =0.01), and the OR comparing the highest to lowest quintile of the Western pattern score was ORE5W = 1.56 (1.18-2.06; Ptrend = 0.01). For advanced AMD, the ORA5O was 0.38 (0.27-0.54; Ptrend < 0.0001), and the ORA5W was 3.70 (2.31-5.92; Ptrend < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our data indicate that overall diet is significantly associated with the odds of AMD and that dietary management as an AMD prevention strategy warrants further study.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
24792100
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4101985
Free PMC Article
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