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Eur J Surg Oncol. 2014 Jul;40(7):818-23. doi: 10.1016/j.ejso.2014.03.023. Epub 2014 Apr 15.

The influence of axillary reverse mapping related factors on lymphedema in breast cancer patients.

Author information

  • 1Department of Breast Surgical Oncology, Osaka City General Hospital, 2-13-22 Miyakojima-hondori, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka 534-0021, Japan. Electronic address: bfaqt406@cwo.zaq.ne.jp.
  • 2Department of Breast Surgical Oncology, Osaka City General Hospital, 2-13-22 Miyakojima-hondori, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka 534-0021, Japan.
  • 3Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Osaka City General Hospital, Japan.
  • 4Department of Medical Oncology, Osaka City General Hospital, Japan.
  • 5Department of Pathology, Osaka City General Hospital, Japan.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Upper extremity lymphedema (LE) is a harmful breast cancer complication. It has been reported that patient- or treatment-related risk factors of LE. Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) has been performed to prevent LE during axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) by visualizing the upper extremity lymphatics. We investigated whether ARM related factors included novel predictive risk factors of LE.

METHODS:

ARM revealed fluorescent axillary nodes (ARM nodes) in 76 patients by fluorescence imaging. Only ARM nodes within the ALND field were removed. Twenty-four (32%) patients developed LE (LE+) and 52 did not (LE-) during a median 24-month post-surgical follow-up period. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features and ARM factors of LE+ and LE-.

RESULTS:

The positive ARM node rate among LE+ was 42%, significantly greater frequency than that among LE- (13%: p ≤ 0.05). Cranial collectors (lymphatic ducts along or above the axillary vein) were significantly more frequent in LE- (44%) than in LE+ (21%: p ≤ 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed postoperative radiation and positive ARM nodes to be positive risk factors and cranial collectors to be a negative risk factor of LE.

CONCLUSIONS:

ARM factors could predict the incidence of LE post-axillary surgeries in breast cancer patients.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Axillary reverse mapping; Breast cancer; Fluorescence imaging; Lymphedema; Predictive factor

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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