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World J Urol. 2015 Mar;33(3):309-14. doi: 10.1007/s00345-014-1305-6. Epub 2014 Apr 23.

Is retrograde intrarenal surgery a viable treatment option for renal stones in patients with solitary kidney?

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  • 1Stone Center at Department of Urology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy.



To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for stones up to 2 cm in diameter in patients with solitary kidney.


From January 2008 to January 2013, we prospectively enrolled all consecutive patients with solitary kidney and renal stones. Plain abdominal computed tomography scan was performed preoperatively and 1 month after the procedure to assess the stone-free rates (SFR). Serum creatinine levels were detected preoperatively, at day 1 postoperatively, at 1 month postoperatively, and then every 6 months postoperatively.


During the study period, we prospectively enrolled a total of 29 patients. The mean age was 55.7 ± 12.3 years; the mean stone size was 1.3 ± 0.4 cm. The primary SFR was 72.4 %; the secondary SFR was 93.1 %. The mean number of procedures per patient was 1.24. The mean serum creatinine levels were 1.5 ± 0.6, 1.6 ± 0.7, 1.6 ± 0.6, and 1.7 ± 0.7 mg/dl preoperatively, at 1 day after RIRS, at 1 month after RIRS, and at 1 year after RIRS, respectively, without detection of any statistical difference (p = 0.76). Median follow-up time was 35.7 ± 19.3 (12-72) months, but that was available for only 18 patients. The mean serum creatinine level at the last follow-up was 1.7 ± 0.9 mg/dl. No major complications were recorded. Grade I complications occurred in eight patients (27.4 %).


RIRS is safe and effective in the treatment of renal stones in patients with solitary kidney, without worsening renal function.

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