Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Prev Med. 2014 Jul;47(1):53-69. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2014.02.010. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

Smoking cessation and recidivism in the Women's Interagency Human Immunodeficiency Virus Study.

Author information

  • 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy , University of California, San Francisco. Electronic address:
  • 2CORE Center, Cook County Health and Hospital System and Rush University, Chicago, Illinois.
  • 3Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
  • 4Department of Community Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn.
  • 5Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington DC.
  • 6Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.
  • 7Division of Internal Medicine , Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York.
  • 8Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco.
  • 9CORE Center, Cook County Health and Hospital System and Rush University, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Medicine, Cook County Health and Hospital System and Rush University, Chicago, Illinois.



Smoking increases the risk of morbidity and mortality and is particularly harmful to HIV-infected people.


To explore smoking trends and longitudinal factors associated with smoking cessation and recidivism among participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.


From 1994 through 2011, a total of 2,961 HIV-infected and 981 HIV-uninfected women were enrolled and underwent semi-annual interviews and specimen collection. Smoking prevalence was evaluated annually and risk factors associated with time to smoking cessation and recidivism were analyzed in 2013 using survival models.


The annual cigarette smoking prevalence declined from 57% in 1995 to 39% in 2011 (p-trend<0.0001). Among smokers, factors significantly associated with a longer time to smoking cessation included less education, alcohol use, having health insurance, >10-year smoking duration, self-reported poor health rating, and having hypertension. Pregnancy in the past 6 months was associated with a shorter time to cessation. Among HIV-infected women, additional risk factors for longer time to cessation included lower household income, use of crack/cocaine/heroin, CD4 cell count ≤200, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use. Predictors of smoking recidivism included marijuana use, enrollment in 1994-1996, and not living in one's own place. Among HIV-infected women, enrollment in 2001-2002 and crack/cocaine/heroin use were associated with a shorter time to recidivism, whereas older age and HAART use were associated with a longer time to recidivism.


Despite declining rates of cigarette smoking, integrated interventions are needed to help women with and at risk for HIV infection to quit smoking and sustain cessation.

Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk