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Anal Bioanal Chem. 2014 Jun;406(16):3957-75. doi: 10.1007/s00216-014-7804-x. Epub 2014 Apr 17.

Graphene-based sensors for detection of heavy metals in water: a review.

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  • 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 North Cramer Street, Milwaukee, WI, 53211, USA.


Graphene (G) is attracting significant attention because of its unique physical and electronic properties. The production of graphene through the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is a low-cost method. The reduction of GO can further lead to electrically conductive reduced GO. These graphene-based nanomaterials are attractive for high-performance water sensors due to their unique properties, such as high specific surface areas, high electron mobilities, and exceptionally low electronic noise. Because of potential risks to the environment and human health arising from heavy-metal pollution in water, G-/GO-based water sensors are being developed for rapid and sensitive detection of heavy-metal ions. In this review, a general introduction to graphene and GO properties, as well as their syntheses, is provided. Recent advances in optical, electrochemical, and electrical detection of heavy-metal ions using graphene or GO are then highlighted. Finally, challenges facing G/GO-based water sensor development and outlook for future research are discussed.

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