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Development of a Virtual Reality Simulator for Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) Cholecystectomy Procedure.

Author information

  • 1Center for Modeling, Simulation and Imaging in Medicine (CeMSIM), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
  • 2Computer Science Department, University of Central Arkansas.
  • 3Gastrointestinal Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University.


The first virtual-reality-based simulator for Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is developed called the Virtual Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery Trainer (VTEST<sup>TM</sup>). VTEST<sup>TM</sup> aims to simulate hybrid NOTES cholecystectomy procedure using a rigid scope inserted through the vaginal port. The hardware interface is designed for accurate motion tracking of the scope and laparoscopic instruments to reproduce the unique hand-eye coordination. The haptic-enabled multimodal interactive simulation includes exposing the Calot's triangle and detaching the gall bladder while performing electrosurgery. The developed VTEST<sup>TM</sup> was demonstrated and validated at NOSCAR 2013.

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