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AAPS PharmSciTech. 2014 Aug;15(4):882-97. doi: 10.1208/s12249-014-0114-y. Epub 2014 Apr 12.

Advances in device and formulation technologies for pulmonary drug delivery.

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  • 1Respiratory Technology, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research and Discipline of Pharmacology, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, 2037, NSW, Australia.


Inhaled pharmaceuticals are formulated and delivered differently according to the therapeutic indication. However, specific device-formulation coupling is often fickle, and new medications or indications also demand new strategies. The discontinuation of chlorofluorocarbon propellants has seen replacement of older metered dose inhalers with dry powder inhaler formulations. High-dose dry powder inhalers are increasingly seen as an alternative dosage form for nebulised medications. In other cases, new medications have completely bypassed conventional inhalers and been formulated for use with unique inhalers such as the Staccato® device. Among these different devices, integration of software and electronic assistance has become a shared trend. This review covers recent device and formulation advances that are forming the current landscape of inhaled therapeutics.

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