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Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014 Aug;20(8):1145-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.04.006. Epub 2014 Apr 13.

Bloodstream infection after stem cell transplantation in children with idiopathic aplastic anemia.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Sapporo Hokuyu Hospital, Sapporo, Japan. Electronic address: r-koba@jacls.jp.
  • 2Specialized Clinical Science, Pediatrics, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan.
  • 3Department of Pediatrics, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
  • 4Department of Hematology and Oncology, Shizuoka Children's Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan.
  • 5Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Medical Center, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya First Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.
  • 6Department of Pediatrics, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.
  • 7Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.
  • 8Department of Hematology/Oncology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Izumi, Japan.
  • 9Department of Hematology/Oncology, Saitama Children's Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.
  • 10Department of Pediatrics, National Kyushu Cancer Center, Fukuoka, Japan.
  • 11Department of Pediatrics, Kagoshima University Medical and Dental Hospital.
  • 12Division of Hematology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
  • 13Japanese Red Cross Kinki Block Blood Center, Osaka, Japan.
  • 14Department of HSCT Data Management and Biostatistics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Abstract

Bloodstream infection (BSI) is the most common infectious complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Identification of risk factors for BSI might be helpful in efforts to reduce transplantation-related death. This study analyzed the incidence of BSI and risk factors for BSI after HSCT in pediatric patients with aplastic anemia (AA). BSI occurred in 39 of the 351 patients with AA (11.1%). Onset of BSI occurred at a median of 8 days after HSCT (range, 0 to 92 days). The 5-year overall survival rate was lower in patients with BSI than in patients without BSI (63.32% ± 7.90% versus 93.35% ± 1.44%; P < .0001). Univariate analysis identified the following variables as associated with BSI: history of immunosuppressive therapy with antithymocyte globulin (ATG), transplantation from an unrelated donor, frequent blood transfusion before transplantation, major or major plus minor ABO type mismatch, graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis with tacrolimus and without cyclosporine, and long interval from diagnosis to transplantation. Among these factors, long interval from diagnosis to transplantation was the sole statistically significant risk factor for BSI on multivariate analysis. In patients who underwent HSCT from a related donor, age ≥14 years at transplantation was risk factor for BSI. In contrast, history of immunosuppressive therapy with ATG, frequent blood transfusion before HSCT, graft failure, and major or major plus minor ABO type mismatch were risk factors for BSI in patients who underwent HSCT from an unrelated donor. Because the overall 5-year survival rate without BSI was >90%, even in patients who were received a transplant from an unrelated donor, control of BSI is very important for successful HSCT in pediatric patients with AA.

Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Aplastic anemia; Bloodstream infection; Childhood; Immunosuppressive therapy; Stem cell transplantation

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