Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
PLoS One. 2014 Apr 9;9(4):e94158. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094158. eCollection 2014.

Whole mitochondrial and plastid genome SNP analysis of nine date palm cultivars reveals plastid heteroplasmy and close phylogenetic relationships among cultivars.

Author information

  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
  • 2Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America.
  • 3Department of Biological Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Department of Genetics, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
  • 4Department of Biological Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Department of Microbial Genetics, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.
  • 5Department of Biological Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Agriculture Research Center, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.
  • 6Department of Biological Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Department of Genetics and Cytology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt.
  • 7Department of Biological Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America.

Abstract

Date palm is a very important crop in western Asia and northern Africa, and it is the oldest domesticated fruit tree with archaeological records dating back 5000 years. The huge economic value of this crop has generated considerable interest in breeding programs to enhance production of dates. One of the major limitations of these efforts is the uncertainty regarding the number of date palm cultivars, which are currently based on fruit shape, size, color, and taste. Whole mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences were utilized to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of date palms to evaluate the efficacy of this approach for molecular characterization of cultivars. Mitochondrial and plastid genomes of nine Saudi Arabian cultivars were sequenced. For each species about 60 million 100 bp paired-end reads were generated from total genomic DNA using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. For each cultivar, sequences were aligned separately to the published date palm plastid and mitochondrial reference genomes, and SNPs were identified. The results identified cultivar-specific SNPs for eight of the nine cultivars. Two previous SNP analyses of mitochondrial and plastid genomes identified substantial intra-cultivar ( = intra-varietal) polymorphisms in organellar genomes but these studies did not properly take into account the fact that nearly half of the plastid genome has been integrated into the mitochondrial genome. Filtering all sequencing reads that mapped to both organellar genomes nearly eliminated mitochondrial heteroplasmy but all plastid SNPs remained heteroplasmic. This investigation provides valuable insights into how to deal with interorganellar DNA transfer in performing SNP analyses from total genomic DNA. The results confirm recent suggestions that plastid heteroplasmy is much more common than previously thought. Finally, low levels of sequence variation in plastid and mitochondrial genomes argue for using nuclear SNPs for molecular characterization of date palm cultivars.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk