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Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(5):1993-9.

Interaction of XRCC1 and XPD gene polymorphisms with lifestyle and environmental factors regarding susceptibility to lung cancer in a high incidence population in North East India.

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  • 1Regional Medical Research Centre, N.E. Region (ICMR), Dibrugarh, Assam, India E-mail :



This study aimed to explore the role of XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) gene polymorphisms, lifestyle and environmental factors as well as their possible interactions in propensity to develop lung cancer in a population with high incidence from North East India.


A total of 272 lung cancer cases and 544 controls were collected and XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) genotypes were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Conditional multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for confounding factors.


The combined Gln/Gln genotype of XRCC1 and XPD genes (OR=2.78, CI=1.05-7.38; p=0.040) was significantly associated with increased risk for lung cancer. Interaction of XRCC1Gln/Gln genotype with exposure of wood combustion (OR=2.56, CI=1.16-5.66; p=0.020), exposure of cooking oil fumes (OR=3.45, CI=1.39-8.58; p=0.008) and tobacco smoking (OR=2.54, CI=1.21-5.32; p=0.014) and interaction of XPD with betel quid chewing (OR=2.31, CI=1.23-4.32; p=0.009) and tobacco smoking (OR=2.13, CI=1.12-4.05; p=0.022) were found to be significantly associated with increased risk for lung cancer.


Gln/Gln alleles of both XRCC1 and XPD genes appear to amplify the effects of household exposure, smoking and betel quid chewing on lung cancer risk in the study population.

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