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Blood. 1989 Jun;73(8):2188-95.

Endotoxin-induced production of plasminogen activator inhibitor by human monocytes is autonomous and can be inhibited by lipid X.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison.


Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMs) produce both tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2) in response to gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cellular roles in the tissue factor response have been previously elucidated, and we now report those roles in PAI-2 production. Monocytes are the only cells among LPS-stimulated PBMs that produce PAI-2 as assessed by measurement of PAI-2 activity and antigen. Concomitant immunohistochemistry demonstrated that monocytes contain PAI-2, with a greater number staining positively and more intensely after exposure to LPS. LPS-stimulated monocytes produced increased amounts of PAI-2 with or without addition of lymphocytes. Lymphocytes prestimulated with LPS and then washed did not induce PAI-2 production in monocytes to which they were added. Lipid X, a precursor in the biosynthetic pathway of lipid A and LPS, was able to inhibit LPS induction of monocyte PAI-2 in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibition was not due to cellular toxicity, the phospholipidlike nature of lipid X, interference with the PAI-2 assay, or monocyte production of a substance interfering with PAI-2. Lipid X was an effective inhibitor of PAI-2 production even when added up to 30 minutes after LPS.

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