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Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1143:33-59. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-0410-5_4.

Enhancement of DNA vaccine efficacy by intracellular targeting strategies.

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  • 1Institute of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Chemical and Biological Engineering, Instituto Superior T├ęcnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon, Portugal.


Immune response against an encoded antigenic protein can be elicited by including targeting sequences to DNA vaccines that promote protein sorting to processing pathways, related with antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complexes (MHC). Candidate DNA vaccines coding for neuraminidase 3 of the avian influenza virus were designed to encode different sequences that direct the protein to specific cellular compartments such as endoplasmic reticulum (i.e., adenovirus E1A), lysosomes (i.e., LAMP), and the combination of protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum and lysosome (i.e., E1A-LAMP). The DNA vaccine prototypes were engineered by biomolecular techniques and subsequently produced in E. coli cells. The biological activity of the vaccines was tested firstly in vitro, in Chinese hamster ovary cells, through flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Then, an essential in vivo study was performed in chickens, in order to evaluate the efficacy of DNA prototype vaccines, by measuring the antibody production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

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