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Cardiol Res Pract. 2014;2014:943162. doi: 10.1155/2014/943162. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

A comprehensive review on metabolic syndrome.

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  • Ex-Servicemen Contributory Health Scheme (ECHS) Polyclinic, Sultanpur Lodhi, Kapurthala District 144626, India.

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of interconnected physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors that directly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all cause mortality. Insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, genetic susceptibility, elevated blood pressure, hypercoagulable state, and chronic stress are the several factors which constitute the syndrome. Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which is characterized by production of abnormal adipocytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α , interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin. The interaction between components of the clinical phenotype of the syndrome with its biological phenotype (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc.) contributes to the development of a proinflammatory state and further a chronic, subclinical vascular inflammation which modulates and results in atherosclerotic processes. Lifestyle modification remains the initial intervention of choice for such population. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioural strategies. Pharmacological treatment should be considered for those whose risk factors are not adequately reduced with lifestyle changes. This review provides summary of literature related to the syndrome's definition, epidemiology, underlying pathogenesis, and treatment approaches of each of the risk factors comprising metabolic syndrome.

PMID:
24711954
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3966331
Free PMC Article

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