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J Epidemiol. 2014;24(3):200-8. Epub 2014 Apr 5.

Factors related to prevalence of hallux valgus in female university students: a cross-sectional study.

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  • 1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University.



We investigated the prevalence of hallux valgus (HV) and examined its association with various factors in a cross-sectional study of Japanese female university students.


A questionnaire survey of foot symptoms, lifestyle, and body mass index (BMI) was administered to 343 women who provided informed consent at a women's university. Footprints were obtained and bone density was measured. Associations of HV with various factors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.


Big toe pain was reported in 26.5% of the women. HV (HV angle, ≥15°) was present in the left foot in 22.4%, the right foot in 20.7%, and unilaterally or bilaterally in 29.7% of women. Mild HV (HV angle, ≥15° to <20°) was noted in the left foot and right foot in 13.4% and 13.1% of women, respectively; no severe HV (HV angle, ≥40°) was observed. HV was associated with big toe pain (adjusted OR: 3.56, 95% CI: 2.01-6.32), history of HV in the mother or maternal grandmother (adjusted OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.19-5.02), and history of HV in other family members (adjusted OR: 3.09, 95% CI: 1.35-7.06). Moderate HV was associated with big toe pain (adjusted OR: 4.58, 95% CI: 2.17-9.66) and history of HV in the mother or maternal grandmother (adjusted OR: 3.36, 95% CI: 1.40-8.07). The proportion of women with big toe pain increased significantly with HV severity.


HV was present in about 30% of female university students. Young women with big toe pain or a family history of HV should be evaluated for HV.

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