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Diabetes Educ. 2014 Apr 2;40(3):269-279. [Epub ahead of print]

The Impact of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia on Clinical and Cost-Related Issues in Patients With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

Author information

  • 1University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Taking Control of Your Diabetes, San Diego, CA (Dr Edelman)Center for Integrated Drug Development, San Diego, CA (Dr Blose) svedelman@vapop.ucsd.edu.
  • 2University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Taking Control of Your Diabetes, San Diego, CA (Dr Edelman)Center for Integrated Drug Development, San Diego, CA (Dr Blose).

Abstract

PURPOSE:

This article provides an overview of the clinical and economic issues associated with hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Current research regarding hypoglycemia is comprehensively reviewed, with special emphasis on nocturnal hypoglycemia, as almost 50% of all severe hypoglycemic episodes occur at nighttime during sleep. Current findings on the economic and human burden of hypoglycemia are presented.

CONCLUSIONS:

Poor diabetes self-management leads to an increased risk for hypoglycemia and the development of long-term complications associated with poor glycemic control. Hypoglycemia is also associated with increased health care costs and resources required to treat hypoglycemic events, as well as personal financial costs and loss of productivity at school or work. In addition, fear, anxiety, and worry about hypoglycemic episodes are shown to interfere with patients' quality of life. Nocturnal hypoglycemia can cause a number of immediate clinical consequences, including convulsions, coma, and even death. Repeated long-term exposure to nocturnal hypoglycemia can blunt counterregulatory mechanisms that maintain glucose levels, leading to reduced cognitive function, impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, and hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure. Clinicians must be aware of the impact of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal hypoglycemia, so that they can prescribe appropriate glucose-lowering therapy and educate patients about the prevention and management of hypoglycemic events to reduce anxiety and improve quality of life.

© 2014 The Author(s).

PMID:
24695260
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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