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Gynecol Oncol. 2014 Jun;133(3):485-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.03.567. Epub 2014 Mar 29.

Risk-scoring models for individualized prediction of overall survival in low-grade and high-grade endometrial cancer.

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  • 1Division of Gynecologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
  • 2Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
  • 3Department of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
  • 4Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.



Overall survival (OS) in endometrial cancer (EC) is dependent on patient-, disease-, and treatment-specific risk factors. Comprehensive risk-scoring models were developed to estimate OS in low-grade and high-grade EC.


Patients undergoing primary surgery for EC from 1999 through 2008 were stratified histologically according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) as either (i) low grade: grades 1 and 2 endometrioid EC or (ii) high grade: grade 3, including non-endometrioid EC. Associations between patient-, pathological-, and treatment-specific risk factors and OS starting on postoperative day 30 were assessed using multivariable Cox regression models. Factors independently associated with OS were used to construct nomograms and risk-scoring models.


Eligible patients (N=1281) included 925 low-grade and 356 high-grade patients; estimated 5-year OSs were 87.0% and 51.5%, respectively. Among patients alive at last follow-up, median follow-up was 5.0 (low grade) and 4.6years (high grade), respectively. In low-grade patients, independent factors predictive of compromised OS included age, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary dysfunction, stage, tumor diameter, pelvic lymph node status, and grade 2 or higher 30-day postoperative complications. Among high-grade patients, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, stage, lymphovascular space invasion, adjuvant therapy, para-aortic nodal status, and cervical stromal invasion were independent predictors of compromised OS. The two risk-scoring models/nomograms had excellent calibration and discrimination (unbiased c-indices=0.803 and 0.759).


Patients with low-grade and high-grade EC can be counseled regarding their predicted OS using the proposed risk-scoring models. This may facilitate institution of personalized treatment algorithms, surveillance strategies, and lifestyle interventions.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Endometrial cancer; High grade; Low grade; Nomogram; Overall survival

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