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J Membr Biol. 2014 May;247(5):451-9. doi: 10.1007/s00232-014-9652-1. Epub 2014 Mar 29.

Agomelatine and duloxetine synergistically modulates apoptotic pathway by inhibiting oxidative stress triggered intracellular calcium entry in neuronal PC12 cells: role of TRPM2 and voltage-gated calcium channels.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Suleyman Demirel, Isparta, Turkey.


Calcium ion (Ca(2+)) is one of the universal second messengers, which acts in a wide range of cellular processes. Results of recent studies indicated that ROS generated by depression leads to loss of endoplasmic reticulum-Ca(2+) homeostasis, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Agomelatine and duloxetine are novel antidepressant and antioxidant drugs and may reduce oxidative stress, apoptosis, and Ca(2+) entry through TRPM2 and voltage-gated calcium channels. We tested the effects of agomelatine, duloxetine, and their combination on oxidative stress, Ca(2+) influx, mitochondrial depolarization, apoptosis, and caspase values in the PC-12 neuronal cells. PC-12 neuronal cells were exposed in cell culture and exposed to appropriate non-toxic concentrations and incubation times for agomelatine were determined in the neurons by assessing cell viability. Then PC-12 cells were incubated with agomelatine and duloxetine for 24 h. Treatment of cultured PC-12 cells with agomelatine, duloxetine, and their combination results in a protection on apoptosis, caspase-3, caspase-9, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytosolic ROS production, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and lipid peroxidation, values. Ca(2+) entry through non-specific TRPM2 channel blocker (2-APB) and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel blockers (verapamil and diltiazem) was modulated by agomelatine and duloxetine. However, effects of duloxetine on the Ca(2+) entry through TRPM2 channels were higher than in agomelatine. Results of current study suggest that the agomelatine and duloxetine are useful against apoptotic cell death and oxidative stress in PC-12 cells, which seem to be dependent on mitochondrial damage and increased levels of intracellular Ca(2+) through activation of TRPM2 and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels.

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