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Ann Thorac Surg. 2014 May;97(5):1539-47; discussion 1548. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.11.036. Epub 2014 Mar 27.

Long-term durability of bicuspid aortic valve repair.

Author information

  • 1The Aortic Center, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Electronic address: svenssl@ccf.org.
  • 2The Aortic Center, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
  • 3The Aortic Center, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
  • 4Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Research Institute, Cleveland, Ohio.
  • 5The Aortic Center, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Research Institute, Cleveland, Ohio.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital cardiac malformation, occurring in 1% to 2% of the population. Eventually, 20% develop clinically important valvar regurgitation requiring surgical intervention. Aortic valve repair avoids anticoagulation and prosthetic valve-related complications. This study evaluated long-term durability of BAV repair.

METHODS:

From 1985 to 2011, 728 patients, mean age 42±12 years, underwent BAV repair at Cleveland Clinic. Mean follow-up was 9.0±6.2 years (median, 8.3). Factors associated with repair durability (expressed as aortic valve reoperations and echocardiographically estimated gradients and regurgitation) and survival were identified.

RESULTS:

Hospital mortality was 0.41% (n=3), and stroke occurred in 0.27% (n=2). Freedom from aortic valve reoperation at 10 years was 78%. Risk of reoperation was highest immediately after operation and fell rapidly to approximately 2.6%/year up to 15 years. Primary reasons for reoperation were cusp prolapse (38%), aortic stenosis or regurgitation (17%), and aortic regurgitation from root aneurysm (15%). Aortic valve gradients showed an early initial peak, rapidly declined, then rose steadily, accompanied by an increase in left ventricular mass. Survival was 94% at 10 years. A risk factor for early death was greater preoperative mitral valve regurgitation, and for late death, older age at operation, more severe symptoms, and poorer left ventricular function.

CONCLUSIONS:

BAV repair is safe and durable with low mortality, low prevalence of reoperation, and good long-term survival. Cusp prolapse from technical errors and natural progression of disease are the most common causes for reoperation, but progressive natural increase in valve gradient accounts for a substantial proportion as well.

Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
24680032
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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