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Gut Liver. 2014 Mar;8(2):117-30. doi: 10.5009/gnl.2014.8.2.117. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

Population screening for colorectal cancer means getting FIT: the past, present, and future of colorectal cancer screening using the fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT).

Author information

  • 1Division of Gastroenterology, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA. ; Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA.
  • 2Centre for Research into Cancer Prevention and Screening, University of Dundee School of Medicine, Dundee, Scotland.
  • 3NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Southern Programme Hub, Royal Surrey County Hospital and University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
  • 4Flinders Centre for Innovation in Cancer, Flinders University, Bedford Park SA, Australia.


Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin (FIT) are changing the manner in which colorectal cancer (CRC) is screened. Although these tests are being performed worldwide, why is this test different from its predecessors? What evidence supports its adoption? How can this evidence best be used? This review addresses these questions and provides an understanding of FIT theory and practices to expedite international efforts to implement the use of FIT in CRC screening.


Colorectal cancer; Colorectal cancer screening; Fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin; Population screening

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