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Nature. 2014 Mar 27;507(7493):455-61. doi: 10.1038/nature12787.

An atlas of active enhancers across human cell types and tissues.

Collaborators (261)

Forrest AR, Kawaji H, Rehli M, Baillie JK, de Hoon MJ, Haberle V, Lassmann T, Kulakovskiy IV, Lizio M, Itoh M, Andersson R, Mungall CJ, Meehan TF, Schmeier S, Bertin N, Jørgensen M, Dimont E, Arner E, Schmid C, Schaefer U, Medvedeva YA, Plessy C, Vitezic M, Severin J, Semple CA, Ishizu Y, Young RS, Francescatto M, Alam I, Albanese D, Altschuler GM, Arakawa T, Archer JA, Arner P, Babina M, Rennie S, Balwierz PJ, Beckhouse AG, Pradhan-Bhatt S, Blake JA, Blumenthal A, Bodega B, Bonetti A, Briggs J, Brombacher F, Burroughs AM, Califano A, Cannistracti CV, Carbajo D, Chen Y, Chierici M, Ciani Y, Clevers HC, Dalla E, Davis CA, Detmar M, Diehl AD, Dohi T, Drabløs F, Edge AS, Edinger M, Ekwall K, Endoh M, Enomoto H, Fagiolini M, Fairbairn L, Fang H, Farach-Carson MC, Faulkner GJ, Favorov AV, Fisher ME, Frith MC, Fujita R, Fukuda S, Furlanello C, Furuno M, Furusawa J, Geijtenbeek TB, Gibson AP, Gingeras T, Goldowitz D, Gough J, Guhl S, Guler R, Gustincich S, Ha TJ, Hamaguchi M, Hara M, Harbers M, Harshbarger J, Hasegawa A, Hasegawa Y, Hashimoto T, Herlyn M, Hitchens KJ, Ho Sui SJ, Hofman OM, Hoof I, Hori F, Huminiecki L, Iida K, Ikawa T, Jankovic BR, Jia H, Joshi A, Jurman G, Kaczkowski B, Kai C, Kaida K, Kaiho A, Kajiyama K, Kanamori-Katayama M, Kasianov AS, Kasukawa T, Katayama S, Kato S, Kawaguchi S, Kawamoto H, Kawamura YI, Kawashima T, Kempfle JS, Kenna TJ, Kere J, Khachigian LM, Kitamura T, Klinken SP, Knox AJ, Kojima M, Kojima S, Kondo N, Koseki H, Koyasu S, Krampitz S, Kubosaki A, Kwon AT, Laros JF, Lee W, Lennartsson A, Li K, Lilje B, Lipovich L, Mackay-Sim A, Manabe R, Mar JC, Marchand B, Mathelier A, Mejhert N, Meynert A, Mizuno Y, de Lima Morais DA, Morikawa H, Morimoto M, Moro K, Motakis E, Motohashi H, Mummery CL, Murata M, Nagao-Sato S, Nakachi Y, Nakahara F, Nakamura T, Nakamura Y, Nakazato K, van Nimwegen E, Ninomiya N, Nishiyori H, Noma S, Nozaki T, Ogishima S, Ohkura N, Ohmiya H, Ohno H, Onshima M, Okada-Hatakeyama M, Okazaki Y, Orlando V, Ovchinnikov DA, Pain A, Passier R, Patrikakis M, Persson H, Piazza S, Prendergast JG, Rackham OJ, Ramilowski JA, Rashid M, Ravasi T, Rizzu P, Roncador M, Roy S, Rye MB, Saijyo E, Sajantila A, Saka A, Sakaguchi S, Sakai M, Sato H, Satoh H, Savvi S, Saxena A, Schneider C, Schultes EA, Schultz-Tanzil GG, Schwegmann A, Sengstag T, Sheng G, Shimoji H, Shimoni Y, Shin JW, Simon C, Sugiyama D, Sugiyama T, Suzuki M, Suzuki N, Swoboda RK, 't Hoen PA, Tagami M, Takahashi N, Takai J, Tanaka H, Tatsukawa H, Tatum Z, Thompson M, Toyoda H, Toyodo T, Valen E, van de Wetering M, van den Berg LM, Verardo R, Vijayan D, Vorontsov IE, Wasserman WW, Watanabe S, Wells CA, Winteringham LN, Wolvetang E, Wood EJ, Yamaguchi Y, Yamamoto M, Yoneda M, Yonekura Y, Yoshida S, Zabierowski SE, Zhang PG, Zhao X, Zucchelli S, Summers KM, Suzuki H, Daub CO, Kawai J, Heutink P, Hide W, Freeman TC, Lenhard B, Bajic VB, Taylor MS, Makeev VJ, Sandelin A, Hume DA, Carninci P, Hayashizaki Y.

Abstract

Enhancers control the correct temporal and cell-type-specific activation of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. Knowing their properties, regulatory activity and targets is crucial to understand the regulation of differentiation and homeostasis. Here we use the FANTOM5 panel of samples, covering the majority of human tissues and cell types, to produce an atlas of active, in vivo-transcribed enhancers. We show that enhancers share properties with CpG-poor messenger RNA promoters but produce bidirectional, exosome-sensitive, relatively short unspliced RNAs, the generation of which is strongly related to enhancer activity. The atlas is used to compare regulatory programs between different cells at unprecedented depth, to identify disease-associated regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms, and to classify cell-type-specific and ubiquitous enhancers. We further explore the utility of enhancer redundancy, which explains gene expression strength rather than expression patterns. The online FANTOM5 enhancer atlas represents a unique resource for studies on cell-type-specific enhancers and gene regulation.

PMID:
24670763
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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