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Lancet. 2014 Jun 21;383(9935):2127-35. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60488-8. Epub 2014 Mar 19.

Effect of radiotherapy after mastectomy and axillary surgery on 10-year recurrence and 20-year breast cancer mortality: meta-analysis of individual patient data for 8135 women in 22 randomised trials.

Collaborators (635)

Abe O, Abe R, Enomoto K, Kikuchi K, Koyama H, Masuda H, Nomura Y, Ohashi Y, Sakai K, Sugimachi K, Toi M, Tominaga T, Uchino J, Yoshida M, Haybittle JL, Leonard CF, Calais G, Geraud P, Collett V, Davies C, Delmestri A, Sayer J, Harvey VJ, Holdaway IM, Kay RG, Mason BH, Forbes JF, Wilcken N, Bartsch R, Dubsky P, Fesl C, Fohler H, Gnant M, Greil R, Jakesz R, Lang A, Luschin-Ebengreuth G, Marth C, Mlineritsch B, Samonigg H, Singer CF, Steger GG, Stöger H, Canney P, Yosef HM, Focan C, Peek U, Oates GD, Powell J, Durand M, Mauriac L, Di Leo A, Dolci S, Larsimont D, Nogaret JM, Philippson C, Piccart MJ, Masood MB, Parker D, Price JJ, Lindsay MA, Mackey J, Martin M, Hupperets PS, Bates T, Blamey RW, Chetty U, Ellis IO, Mallon E, Morgan DA, Patnick J, Pinder S, Olivotto I, Ragaz J, Berry D, Broadwater G, Cirrincione C, Muss H, Norton L, Weiss RB, Abu-Zahra HT, Portnoj SM, Bowden S, Brookes C, Dunn J, Fernando I, Lee M, Poole C, Rea D, Spooner D, Barrett-Lee PJ, Mansel RE, Monypenny IJ, Gordon NH, Davis HL, Cuzick J, Lehingue Y, Romestaing P, Dubois JB, Delozier T, Griffon B, Mace Lesech J, Brain E, de La Lande B, Mouret-Fourme E, Mustacchi G, Petruzelka L, Pribylova O, Owen JR, Harbeck N, Jänicke F, Meisner C, Schmitt M, Thomssen C, Meier P, Shan Y, Shao YF, Wang X, Zhao DB, Chen ZM, Pan HC, Howell A, Swindell R, Burrett JA, Clarke M, Collins R, Correa C, Cutter D, Darby S, Davies C, Davies K, Delmestri A, Elphinstone P, Evans V, Gettins L, Godwin J, Gray R, Gregory C, Hermans D, Hicks C, James S, Kerr A, Liu H, MacKinnon E, Lay M, McGale P, McHugh T, Morris P, Pan HC, Peto R, Sayer J, Taylor C, Wang Y, Albano J, de Oliveira CF, Gervásio H, Gordilho J, Ejlertsen B, Jensen MB, Johansen H, Mouridsen H, Palshof T, Gelman RS, Harris JR, Hayes D, Henderson C, Shapiro CL, Winer E, Christiansen P, Ejlertsen B, Ewertz M, Jensen MB, Møller S, Mouridsen HT, Trampisch HJ, Dalesio O, de Vries EG, Rodenhuis S, van Tinteren H, Comis RL, Davidson NE, Gray R, Robert N, Sledge G, Solin LJ, Sparano JA, Tormey DC, Wood W, Cameron D, Chetty U, Dixon JM, Forrest P, Jack W, Kunkler I, Rossbach J, Klijn JG, Treurniet-Donker AD, van Putten WL, Rotmensz N, Veronesi U, Viale G, Bartelink H, Bijker N, Bogaerts J, Cardoso F, Cufer T, Julien JP, Rutgers E, van de Velde CJ, Cunningham MP, Huovinen R, Joensuu H, Costa A, Bonadonna G, Gianni L, Valagussa P, Goldstein LJ, Bonneterre J, Fargeot P, Fumoleau P, Kerbrat P, Luporsi E, Namer M, Eiermann W, Hilfrich J, Jonat W, Kaufmann M, Kreienberg R, Schumacher M, Bastert G, Rauschecker H, Sauer R, Sauerbrei W, Schauer A, Schumacher M, Blohmer JU, Costa SD, Eidtmann H, Gerber B, Jackisch C, Loibl S, von Minckwitz G, de Schryver A, Vakaet L, Belfiglio M, Nicolucci A, Pellegrini F, Pirozzoli MC, Sacco M, Valentini M, McArdle CS, Smith DC, Stallard S, Dent DM, Gudgeon CA, Hacking A, Murray E, Panieri E, Werner ID, Carrasco E, Martin M, Segui MA, Galligioni E, Lopez M, Erazo A, Medina JY, Horiguchi J, Takei H, Fentiman IS, Hayward JL, Rubens RD, Skilton D, Scheurlen H, Kaufmann M, Sohn HC, Untch M, Dafni U, Markopoulos C, Dafni U, Fountzilas G, Mavroudis D, Klefstrom P, Blomqvist C, Saarto T, Gallen M, Tinterri C, Margreiter R, de Lafontan B, Mihura J, Roché H, Asselain B, Salmon RJ, Vilcoq JR, André F, Arriagada R, Delaloge S, Hill C, Koscielny S, Michiels S, Rubino C, A'Hern R, Bliss J, Ellis P, Kilburn L, Yarnold JR, Benraadt J, Kooi M, van de Velde AO, van Dongen JA, Vermorken JB, Castiglione M, Coates A, Colleoni M, Collins J, Forbes J, Gelber RD, Goldhirsch A, Lindtner J, Price KN, Regan MM, Rudenstam CM, Senn HJ, Thuerlimann B, Bliss JM, Chilvers CE, Coombes RC, Hall E, Marty M, Buyse M, Possinger K, Schmid P, Untch M, Wallwiener D, Foster L, George WD, Stewart HJ, Stroner P, Borovik R, Hayat H, Inbar MJ, Peretz T, Robinson E, Bruzzi P, Del Mastro L, Pronzato P, Sertoli MR, Venturini M, Camerini T, De Palo G, Di Mauro MG, Formelli F, Valagussa P, Amadori D, Martoni A, Pannuti F, Camisa R, Cocconi G, Colozza A, Passalacqua R, Aogi K, Takashima S, Abe O, Ikeda T, Inokuchi K, Kikuchi K, Sawa K, Sonoo H, Korzeniowski S, Skolyszewski J, Ogawa M, Yamashita J, Bastiaannet E, van de Velde CJ, van de Water W, van Nes JG, Christiaens R, Neven P, Paridaens R, Van den Bogaert W, Braun S, Martin P, Romain S, Janauer M, Seifert M, Sevelda P, Zielinski CC, Hakes T, Hudis CA, Norton L, Wittes R, Giokas G, Kondylis D, Lissaios B, de la Huerta R, Sainz MG, Altemus R, Camphausen K, Cowan K, Danforth D, Lichter A, Lippman M, O'Shaughnessy J, Pierce LJ, Steinberg S, Venzon D, Zujewski JA, D'Amico C, Lioce M, Paradiso A, Chapman JA, Gelmon K, Goss PE, Levine MN, Meyer R, Parulekar W, Pater JL, Pritchard KI, Shepherd LE, Tu D, Whelan T, Nomura Y, Ohno S, Anderson S, Bass G, Brown A, Bryant J, Costantino J, Dignam J, Fisher B, Geyer C, Mamounas EP, Paik S, Redmond C, Swain S, Wickerham L, Wolmark N, Baum M, Jackson IM, Palmer MK, Perez E, Ingle JN, Suman VJ, Bengtsson NO, Emdin S, Jonsson H, Del Mastro L, Venturini M, Lythgoe JP, Swindell R, Kissin M, Erikstein B, Hannisdal E, Jacobsen AB, Varhaug JE, Erikstein B, Gundersen S, Hauer-Jensen M, Høst H, Jacobsen AB, Nissen-Meyer R, Reinertsen K, Blamey RW, Mitchell AK, Morgan DA, Robertson JF, Ueo H, Di Palma M, Mathé G, Misset JL, Levine M, Pritchard KI, Whelan T, Morimoto K, Sawa K, Takatsuka Y, Crossley E, Harris A, Talbot D, Taylor M, Cocconi G, di Blasio B, Ivanov V, Paltuev R, Semiglazov V, Brockschmidt J, Cooper MR, Falkson CI, A'Hern R, Dowsett M, Makris A, Parton M, Pennert K, Powles TJ, Smith IE, Yarnold JR, Gazet JC, Browne L, Graham P, Corcoran N, Businico A, Deshpande N, di Martino L, Douglas P, Hacking A, Høst H, Lindtner A, Notter G, Bryant AJ, Ewing GH, Firth LA, Krushen-Kosloski JL, Nissen-Meyer R, Anderson H, Killander F, Malmström P, Rydén L, Arnesson LG, Carstensen J, Dufmats M, Fohlin H, Nordenskjöld B, Söderberg M, Carpenter JT, Murray N, Royle GT, Simmonds PD, Albain K, Barlow W, Crowley J, Hayes D, Gralow J, Hortobagyi G, Livingston R, Martino S, Osborne CK, Ravdin PM, Adolfsson J, Bergh J, Bondesson T, Celebioglu F, Dahlberg K, Fornander T, Fredriksson I, Frisell J, Göransson E, Iiristo M, Johansson U, Lenner E, Löfgren L, Nikolaidis P, Perbeck L, Rotstein S, Sandelin K, Skoog L, Svane G, af Trampe E, Wadström C, Janni W, Castiglione M, Goldhirsch A, Maibach R, Senn HJ, Thürlimann B, Hakama M, Holli K, Isola J, Rouhento K, Saaristo R, Brenner H, Hercbergs A, Yoshimoto M, Paterson AH, Pritchard KI, Fyles A, Meakin JW, Panzarella T, Pritchard KI, Bahi J, Reid M, Spittle M, Bishop H, Bundred NJ, Cuzick J, Ellis IO, Fentiman IS, Forbes JF, Forsyth S, George WD, Pinder SE, Sestak I, Deutsch GP, Gray R, Kwong DL, Pai VR, Peto R, Senanayake F, Martin AL, Roché H, Boccardo F, Rubagotti A, Baum M, Forsyth S, Hackshaw A, Houghton J, Ledermann J, Monson K, Tobias JS, Carlomagno C, De Laurentiis M, De Placido S, Williams L, Hayes D, Pierce LJ, Broglio K, Buzdar AU, Hsu L, Love RR, Ahlgren J, Garmo H, Holmberg L, Liljegren G, Lindman H, Wärnberg F, Asmar L, Jones SE, Gluz O, Harbeck N, Liedtke C, Nitz U, Litton A, Wallgren A, Karlsson P, Linderholm BK, Chlebowski RT, Caffier H.

Erratum in

  • Lancet. 2014 Nov 22;384(9957):1848.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Postmastectomy radiotherapy was shown in previous meta-analyses to reduce the risks of both recurrence and breast cancer mortality in all women with node-positive disease considered together. However, the benefit in women with only one to three positive lymph nodes is uncertain. We aimed to assess the effect of radiotherapy in these women after mastectomy and axillary dissection.

METHODS:

We did a meta-analysis of individual data for 8135 women randomly assigned to treatment groups during 1964-86 in 22 trials of radiotherapy to the chest wall and regional lymph nodes after mastectomy and axillary surgery versus the same surgery but no radiotherapy. Follow-up lasted 10 years for recurrence and to Jan 1, 2009, for mortality. Analyses were stratified by trial, individual follow-up year, age at entry, and pathological nodal status.

FINDINGS:

3786 women had axillary dissection to at least level II and had zero, one to three, or four or more positive nodes. All were in trials in which radiotherapy included the chest wall, supraclavicular or axillary fossa (or both), and internal mammary chain. For 700 women with axillary dissection and no positive nodes, radiotherapy had no significant effect on locoregional recurrence (two-sided significance level [2p]>0·1), overall recurrence (rate ratio [RR], irradiated vs not, 1·06, 95% CI 0·76-1·48, 2p>0·1), or breast cancer mortality (RR 1·18, 95% CI 0·89-1·55, 2p>0·1). For 1314 women with axillary dissection and one to three positive nodes, radiotherapy reduced locoregional recurrence (2p<0·00001), overall recurrence (RR 0·68, 95% CI 0·57-0·82, 2p=0·00006), and breast cancer mortality (RR 0·80, 95% CI 0·67-0·95, 2p=0·01). 1133 of these 1314 women were in trials in which systemic therapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil, or tamoxifen) was given in both trial groups and, for them, radiotherapy again reduced locoregional recurrence (2p<0·00001), overall recurrence (RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·55-0·82, 2p=0·00009), and breast cancer mortality (RR 0·78, 95% CI 0·64-0·94, 2p=0·01). For 1772 women with axillary dissection and four or more positive nodes, radiotherapy reduced locoregional recurrence (2p<0·00001), overall recurrence (RR 0·79, 95% CI 0·69-0·90, 2p=0·0003), and breast cancer mortality (RR 0·87, 95% CI 0·77-0·99, 2p=0·04).

INTERPRETATION:

After mastectomy and axillary dissection, radiotherapy reduced both recurrence and breast cancer mortality in the women with one to three positive lymph nodes in these trials even when systemic therapy was given. For today's women, who in many countries are at lower risk of recurrence, absolute gains might be smaller but proportional gains might be larger because of more effective radiotherapy.

FUNDING:

Cancer Research UK, British Heart Foundation, UK Medical Research Council.

Copyright © 2014 EBCTCG. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID:
24656685
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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