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Encephale. 2014 Apr;40(2):143-53. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2014.02.006. Epub 2014 Mar 20.

[Management of bipolar 1 disorder in children and adolescents].

[Article in French]

Author information

  • 1Équipe mobile de soins intensifs, centre Esquirol, CHU de Caen, avenue Côte-de-Nacre, 14033 Caen, France; CNRS, UMR 6301 ISTCT, ISTS group, GIP CYCERON, 14074 Caen, France; CEA, DSV/I2BM, UMR 6301 ISTCT, 14074 Caen, France; Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, UMR 6301 ISTCT, 14074 Caen, France. Electronic address:
  • 2Service de psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent, hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, AP-HP, 75651 Paris cedex 13, France.
  • 3Service de psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent, hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, AP-HP, 75651 Paris cedex 13, France; CNRS UMR 7222, institut des systèmes intelligents et robotiques, université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France.


Lifetime prevalence of child and adolescent bipolar 1 disorder (BD1) is nearly 0.1 %. Even though it is not a frequent disorder in young people, there is an increased interest for this disorder at this age, because of the poor outcome, the severe functional impairments and the major risk of suicide. Diagnosis is complex in view of the more frequent comorbidities, the variability with an age-dependant clinical presentation, and the overlap in symptom presentation with other psychiatric disorders (e.g. disruptive disorders in prepubertal the child and schizophrenia in the adolescent). The presentation in adolescents is very similar to that in adults and in prepubertal children chronic persistent irritability and rapid mood oscillation are often at the foreground. For a while, such presentations were considered as BD-not otherwise specified (BD-NOS), which can explain the outburst of the prevalence of bipolar disorder in children in the US. Longitudinal studies that look for the outcome of such emotional dysregulations have not revealed an affiliation with bipolar disorder spectrum, but with depressive disorders in adulthood. The diagnosis of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder was proposed in the DSM-5 to identify these children and to prevent confusion with bipolar disorder. The goals of the pharmacological and psychosocial treatments are to control or ameliorate the symptoms, to avoid new episodes or recurrences, to improve psychosocial functioning and well-being, and to prevent suicide. In the US, lithium and four atypical antipsychotics have been approved by the FDA for 10 to 13-year-olds (risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole and quetiapine). In France, only lithium salts (after the age of 16) and aripiprazole (after the age of 13) are recommended. Psychosocial treatments, such as a familial or individual approach are developing.

Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Adolescents; Bipolar 1 disorder; Children; Comorbidities; Comorbidités; Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder; Enfants; Trouble bipolaire type 1

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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