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J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2014 Mar;13(1):22-8. doi: 10.1007/s12663-012-0456-5. Epub 2012 Nov 27.

Establishment of soft tissue norms for the north Indian population based on laymen perception.

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  • 1Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Institute of Dental Sciences, Bareilly, 243006 India.
  • 2Department of Periodontics, Institute of Dental Sciences, Bareilly, India.
  • 3Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, K.D Dental College and Hospital, Mathura, India.


In this study we aimed to determine the soft tissue norms for the North Indian population based on the laymen perception of facial esthetics and to test the hypothesis that there are racial differences in cephalometric measurement between North Indians and White Americans norms. Two sets (Facial frontal and profile photographs) of 170 standardized facial photographs (76 males and 94 females in the age group of 18-28 years) were taken. A panel of judges which consisted of 20 laymen evaluated the photographs on the visual analogue scale to select a sample of 120 subjects (60 males and 60 females), which included individuals with esthetically pleasing appearance. Digital lateral cephalograms were made and anatomic landmarks were identified directly on the digital images. Seventeen soft tissue variables taken from Subtenley's, Holdaway's, Ricketts and Legan's analysis were calculated electronically using the Dolphin (version 9) software package. Most measurements were similar to the white American norms, some differences were noticed in nasal prominence, basic upper lip thickness, and 'H' angle measurements. The independent-sample t test was used to compare the measurement differences of the North Indian men and women. North Indian males have relatively prominent and thicker upper lip, and increased basic upper lip thickness than the females. Lower lip was found to be more protrusive in females than in males.


Cephalometric analysis; Ethnic difference; Photographs; Soft tissue profile

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