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Small. 2014 Jun 12;10(11):2280-4. doi: 10.1002/smll.201303671. Epub 2014 Mar 7.

A general route towards defect and pore engineering in graphene.

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  • 1Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.


Defect engineering in graphene is important for tailoring graphene's properties thus applicable in various applications such as porous membranes and ultra-capacitors. In this paper, we report a general route towards defect- and pore- engineering in graphene through remote plasma treatments. Oxygen plasma irradiation was employed to create homogenous defects in graphene with controllable density from a few to ≈10(3) (μm(-2)). The created defects can be further enlarged into nanopores by hydrogen plasma anisotropic etching with well-defined pore size of a few nm or above. The achieved smallest nanopores are ≈2 nm in size, showing the potential for ultra-small graphene nanopores fabrication.

© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Raman spectroscopy; defects; graphene; nanopores; plasma etching

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