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PLoS One. 2014 Mar 7;9(3):e90350. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090350. eCollection 2014.

Plasma concentrations, efficacy and safety of efavirenz in HIV-infected adults treated for tuberculosis in Cambodia (ANRS 1295-CIPRA KH001 CAMELIA trial).

Author information

  • 1Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Epidemiology and Public Health Unit, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • 2Institut Pasteur, Unité de Recherche et d'Expertise Epidémiologie des Maladies Emergentes, Paris, France.
  • 3ANRS, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
  • 4Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Health Sciences, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • 5Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • 6Donkeo Provincial Hospital, Takeo, Cambodia; Médecins Sans Frontières, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • 7Svay Rieng Provincial Hospital, Svay Rieng, Cambodia; Cambodian Health Committee, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • 8Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • 9Médecins Sans Frontières, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Siem Reap Referral Hospital, Siem Reap, Cambodia.
  • 10Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, HIV/Hepatitis Laboratory, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • 11Institut Pasteur, Unité de Recherche et d'Expertise Epidémiologie des Maladies Emergentes, Paris, France; Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris, France.
  • 12Cambodian Health Committee, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • 13Cambodian Health Committee, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
  • 14Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Sud, Pneumology Department, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; UMR INSERM 1087 CNRS UMR_6291, l'Institut du Thorax, Service de Pneumologie, CHU de Nantes, DHU2020, Université de Nantes, France.
  • 15Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Sud, Clinical Pharmacy Department, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.



To assess efavirenz plasma concentrations and their association with treatment efficacy and tolerance of efavirenz 600 mg daily in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients.


HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell count ≤ 200/mm(3) received standard 6-month tuberculosis treatment and antiretroviral therapy including a daily-dose of 600 mg of efavirenz, irrespective of their body weight. Mid-dose blood samples were drawn both on tuberculosis treatment (week +2 and week +6 after antiretroviral therapy initiation, and week 22 of follow-up) and off tuberculosis treatment (week 50 of follow-up). Considered therapeutic range was 1,000 to 4,000 ng/mL. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association between efavirenz concentration below 1,000 ng/mL and virological failure. Linear regression was used to test the association between efavirenz exposure and CD4+ T cell gain. Severe side effects potentially related to efavirenz were described and their association with efavirenz exposure was tested by multivariate analysis.


Efavirenz plasma concentrations were available in 540 patients. Median [interquartile range] efavirenz concentrations were 2,674 ng/mL [1,690-4,533], 2,667 ng/mL [1,753-4,494] and 2,799 ng/mL [1,804-4,744] at week +2, week +6, week 22, respectively, and 2,766 ng/mL [1,941-3,976] at week 50. Efavirenz concentrations were lower at week 50 (off rifampicin) compared to week 22 (on rifampicin) (p<0.001). Late attendance to study visit and low hemoglobinemia were the only factors associated with an increased risk of efavirenz concentration below 1,000 ng/mL. Efavirenz concentration below 1,000 ng/mL was not associated with treatment failure. Efavirenz concentration above 4,000 ng/mL was associated with higher risk of central nervous system side effects (p<0.001) and of hepatotoxicity (p<0.001).


Body weight and tuberculosis treatment were not associated with low efavirenz concentrations or treatment failure, supporting the 600 mg daily-dose of efavirenz in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients. High efavirenz concentrations were related to a higher risk of central nervous system side effects and hepatotoxicity.


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