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Magn Reson Med. 2014 Feb 25. doi: 10.1002/mrm.25144. [Epub ahead of print]

Susceptibility-based analysis of dynamic gadolinium bolus perfusion MRI.

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  • 1The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; FM Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland.



An algorithm is developed for the reconstruction of dynamic, gadolinium (Gd) bolus MR perfusion images of the human brain, based on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM).


The method is evaluated in five perfusion scans obtained from four different patients scanned at 3 Tesla, and compared with the conventional analysis based on changes in the transverse relaxation rate ΔR2 * and to theoretical predictions. QSM images were referenced to ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for each dynamic of the perfusion sequence.


Images of cerebral blood flow and blood volume were successfully reconstructed from the QSM-analysis, and were comparable to those reconstructed using ΔR2 *. The magnitudes of the Gd-associated susceptibility effects in gray and white matter were consistent with theoretical predictions.


QSM-based analysis may have some theoretical advantages compared with ΔR2 *, including a simpler relationship between signal change and Gd concentration. However, disadvantages are its much lower contrast-to-noise ratio, artifacts due to respiration and other effects, and more complicated reconstruction methods. More work is required to optimize data acquisition protocols for QSM-based perfusion imaging. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


cerebral blood flow; dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI; perfusion; quantitative susceptibility mapping

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