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J Hazard Mater. 2014 Apr 15;270:196-201. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.01.032. Epub 2014 Jan 26.

Kinetics of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) reactions with H₂SO₄, HNO₃ and HCl: implication for hydrometallurgy of electronic wastes.

Author information

  • 1State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wushan, Guangzhou 510640, China.
  • 2State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wushan, Guangzhou 510640, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.
  • 3Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick 08901, NJ, USA.
  • 4State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wushan, Guangzhou 510640, China. Electronic address: pinganp@gig.ac.cn.
  • 5State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wushan, Guangzhou 510640, China; Department of Chemistry, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, China.

Abstract

Hydrometallurgy is an acid leaching based process widely used for recovering precious metals from electronic wastes (e-wastes). The effects of acid leaching on the fate of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in typical hydrometallurgical processes remain largely unknown. This study was aimed at evaluating the fate of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a commonly used BFR, in three acid leaching reagents (i.e. H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl) commonly used in hydrometallurgy. It was found that the reactions of TBBPA with concentrated H2SO4 followed a pseudo-zero-order rate and the reaction rates declined rapidly as the concentrations of H2SO4 decreased. In contrast, TBBPA could be easily transformed in less concentrated HNO3 solutions (<21.7 wt%) and the reactions followed a pseudo-first-order rate. The reaction products identified by GC-MS indicated different transformation pathways of TBBPA in H2SO4 and HNO3. HCl or HCl/H2SO4 mixtures (3:1, v/v) did not appear to react with TBBPA, while aqua regia (3:1 HCl/HNO3, v/v) reacted violently with TBBPA and led to almost complete disappearance of TBBPA within a minute. It suggested that HNO3 significantly affected the fate of TBBPA and the use of HNO3 as leaching reagents in hydrometallurgy of e-wastes should be carefully evaluated. Collectively, our findings of distinct fate of TBBPA in different acid leaching reagents provided fundamental information for design of hydrometallurgical treatment of e-wastes to minimize acid reactions with BFRs within plastics matrix and to maximize acid leaching efficiency for metals recycling processes.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Acid; Electronic wastes; Recycling; TBBPA; Transformation

PMID:
24594840
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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