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PLoS One. 2014 Feb 19;9(2):e89458. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089458. eCollection 2014.

Behavioral and socioeconomic risk factors associated with probable resistance to ceftriaxone and resistance to penicillin and tetracycline in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Shanghai.

Author information

  • 1Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization - International Vaccine Centre, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada ; School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
  • 2School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada ; Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
  • 3Centre for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Health Canada and Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
  • 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
  • 5Shanghai Skin Disease and Sexually Transmitted Disease Hospital, Shanghai, China.
  • 6Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization - International Vaccine Centre, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Abstract

Globally, incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is once again the highest of the bacterial sexually transmitted infections. The bacterium can produce serious complications in those infected, and emerging resistance to third generation cephalosporins could usher in an era of potentially untreatable gonorrhea. This research aimed to identify risk factors for antibiotic resistant gonorrhea infection among clients at a Shanghai sexually transmitted infection clinic over two time periods, 2004-2005 and 2008-2011. Demographic and risk factor behavior data, and biological samples for antimicrobial resistance analysis, were collected. Statistical models were built to identify risk factors associated with probable resistance to ceftriaxone and resistance to penicillin and tetracycline. High levels of ciprofloxacin resistance (98%) in our sample precluded examining its risk factors; all isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. Overall (P<0.001), chromosomal (P<0.001), and plasmid-mediated (P = 0.01) penicillin resistance decreased from the first to second period of the study. For tetracycline, chromosomal resistance decreased (P = 0.01) and plasmid-mediated resistance increased (P<0.001) between the first and second periods of study. In multi-level multivariable regression models, male gender (P = 0.03) and older age (P = 0.01) were associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations to ceftriaxone. Male gender (P = 0.03) and alcohol use (P = 0.02) were associated with increased odds of overall tetracycline resistance. Male gender was associated with increased odds of chromosomally-mediated tetracycline resistance (P = 0.04), and alcohol use was associated with increased odds of plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance (P = 0.02). Additionally, individuals in middle-salary categories were found to have lower odds of plasmid-mediated resistance to tetracycline compared with those in the lowest salary category (P≤0.02). This study is one of the first to use multilevel analysis to consider the association between risk factors for gonorrhea infections and mechanisms of resistance to individual antibiotics. Such information is urgently needed to combat the growing threat of untreatable gonorrhea.

PMID:
24586792
[PubMed - in process]
PMCID:
PMC3929748
Free PMC Article
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