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Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1988 Jun;11(6 Pt 1):736-43.

Resetting of DDD pulse generators due to cold exposure.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Genesee Hospital, Rochester, New York.


We encountered resetting of three DDD pulse generators to the VVI mode, one at the time of implantation and two others just before implantation, and we believe this resulted from cold exposure during shipment. Consequently we analyzed the effect of cold exposure on five lithium-powered DDD pulse generators from different manufacturers. Cold exposure caused resetting of three of the five DDD pulse generators to the VVI mode. Only one of the reset pulse generators responded to application of the magnet by conversion to the asynchronous (VOO) mode, while the other two remained in the VVI mode. All DDD pulse generators should be routinely interrogated before implantation. If found to be reset, the likelihood of cold exposure is very high and the pulse generator can generally be reprogrammed to the DDD mode. The absence of a magnet response in reset DDD pulse generators appropriately inhibited and functioning in the VVI mode should not be interpreted as component failure when no output is observed.

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