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J Adolesc Health. 2014 Mar;54(3):282-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.12.011.

School-located vaccination of adolescents with insurance billing: cost, reimbursement, and vaccination outcomes.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado; Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, Denver, Colorado. Electronic address: matthew.f.daley@kp.org.
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado; Children's Outcomes Research Program, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado; Colorado Health Outcomes Program, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado.
  • 3Children's Outcomes Research Program, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado.
  • 4National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
  • 5Children's Outcomes Research Program, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado; Department of Family Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado.
  • 6Colorado Health Outcomes Program, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado.
  • 7Health Systems, Management, and Policy, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado.
  • 8Health Services Research, Denver Health, Denver, Colorado.
  • 9Department of Family Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado; Denver Public Health, Denver, Colorado.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To assess, in a school-located adolescent vaccination program that billed health insurance, the program costs, the proportion of costs reimbursed, and the likelihood of vaccination.

METHODS:

During the 2010-2011 school year, vaccination clinics were held for sixth- to eighth-grade students at seven Denver public schools. Vaccine administration and purchase costs were compared with reimbursement by insurers. Multivariate analyses were used to compare the likelihood of vaccination among students in intervention schools with students in control schools who did not participate in the program, with analyses stratified by grade (sixth grade vs. seventh-eighth grades).

RESULTS:

Fifteen percent (466 of 3,144) of students attending intervention schools were vaccinated at school-located vaccination clinics. Among students vaccinated at school, 41% were uninsured, 37% publicly insured, and 22% privately insured. Estimated vaccine administration costs were $23.98 per vaccine dose. Seventy-eight percent of vaccine purchase costs and 14% of vaccine administration costs were reimbursed by insurers; 41% of total program costs were reimbursed. Sixth-grade students in intervention schools were more likely than those in control schools to receive tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (risk ratio [RR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08, 1.57), meningococcal conjugate (RR, 1.42; CI, 1.18, 1.70), and human papillomavirus (for females only, RR, 1.69; CI, 1.21, 2.36) vaccines during the 2010-2011 school year, with similar results for seventh- to eighth-grade students.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although school-located adolescent vaccination with billing appears feasible and likely to improve vaccination rates, improvements in insurance coverage and reimbursement rates may be needed for the long-term financial sustainability of such programs.

Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Adolescent; Billing; Cost; Immunization; Reimbursement; School; Vaccine

PMID:
24560036
[PubMed - in process]
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