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Arch Dis Child. 2014 Jul;99(7):629-34. Epub 2014 Feb 17.

Cardiovascular disease in Noonan syndrome.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Noonan syndrome (NS), a relatively common autosomal dominant disorder with an incidence of 1 in 1000 to 2500 live births, is the most common syndromic cause of congenital heart disease after Trisomy 21.

OBJECTIVE:

To comprehensively define the spectrum of cardiac morphology and specific clinical course of a large cohort of NS patients.

DESIGN:

Retrospective, descriptive case series study.

PATIENTS:

An international Harvard-based NS registry was combined with clinical data from NS patients followed at Boston Children's Hospital, Massachusetts, USA.

RESULTS:

We identified 293 patients with NS. Cardiovascular disease was seen in 81% (n=237) including pulmonary stenosis in 57%, secundum atrial septal defects in 32% and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 16%. A genetic mutation of the RAS-MAPK signalling pathway was identified in 62% (n=136). Genotype-phenotype associations were noted between PTPN11 mutations and atrial septal defects (p=0.001), and pulmonary stenosis (p<0.001). RAF1 mutations were associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (p<0.001). Cardiovascular outcomes that differed specifically in a NS cohort included high re-intervention rates (65%) after percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty for valvar pulmonary stenosis. Additionally, in NS patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a clinically significant regression of hypertrophy (17%) was observed as was a markedly higher incidence of concomitant congenital heart defects (70%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Patients with NS have a distinct spectrum of cardiac phenotypes that may have a natural history and response to therapy atypical to that normally seen in non-syndromic heart disease. A diagnosis of NS in a patient with pulmonary stenosis or infant-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy would facilitate condition-specific counselling on outcome and prognosis.

PMID:
24534818
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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