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Opt Express. 2013 Dec 30;21(26):31872-82. doi: 10.1364/OE.21.031872.

Low divergence single-mode surface-emitting concentric-circular-grating terahertz quantum cascade lasers.


We report the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of surface-emitting terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with distributed feedback concentric-circular-gratings. Single-mode operation is achieved at 3.73 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio as high as ~30 dB. The device emits ~5 times the power of a ridge laser of similar dimensions, with little degradation in the maximum operation temperature. Two lobes are observed in the far-field emission pattern, each of which has a divergence angle as narrow as ~13.5° × 7°. We demonstrate that deformation of the device boundary, caused by anisotropic wet chemical etching is the cause of this double-lobed profile, rather than the expected ring-shaped pattern.

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