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EMBO J. 2014 Mar 3;33(5):501-11. doi: 10.1002/embj.201387035. Epub 2014 Feb 5.

Convergent regulation of the lysosomal two-pore channel-2 by Mg²⁺, NAADP, PI(3,5)P₂ and multiple protein kinases.

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  • 1Epithelial Signaling and Transport Section, Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, NIDCR NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.


Lysosomal Ca(2+) homeostasis is implicated in disease and controls many lysosomal functions. A key in understanding lysosomal Ca(2+) signaling was the discovery of the two-pore channels (TPCs) and their potential activation by NAADP. Recent work concluded that the TPCs function as a PI(3,5)P2 activated channels regulated by mTORC1, but not by NAADP. Here, we identified Mg(2+) and the MAPKs, JNK and P38 as novel regulators of TPC2. Cytoplasmic Mg(2+) specifically inhibited TPC2 outward current, whereas lysosomal Mg(2+) partially inhibited both outward and inward currents in a lysosomal lumen pH-dependent manner. Under controlled Mg(2+), TPC2 is readily activated by NAADP with channel properties identical to those in response to PI(3,5)P2. Moreover, TPC2 is robustly regulated by P38 and JNK. Notably, NAADP-mediated Ca(2+) release in intact cells is regulated by Mg(2+), PI(3,5)P2, and P38/JNK kinases, thus paralleling regulation of TPC2 currents. Our data affirm a key role for TPC2 in NAADP-mediated Ca(2+) signaling and link this pathway to Mg(2+) homeostasis and MAP kinases, pointing to roles for lysosomal Ca(2+) in cell growth, inflammation and cancer.

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