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Nano Lett. 2014 Mar 12;14(3):1242-8. doi: 10.1021/nl4041274. Epub 2014 Feb 10.

High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures.

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  • 1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, ‡Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, and §Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University , Houston, Texas 77005, United States.


Gate-controllable transmission of terahertz (THz) radiation makes graphene a promising material for making high-speed THz wave modulators. However, to date, graphene-based THz modulators have exhibited only small on/off ratios due to small THz absorption in single-layer graphene. Here we demonstrate a ∼50% amplitude modulation of THz waves with gated single-layer graphene by the use of extraordinary transmission through metallic ring apertures placed right above the graphene layer. The extraordinary transmission induced ∼7 times near-filed enhancement of THz absorption in graphene. These results promise complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible THz modulators with tailored operation frequencies, large on/off ratios, and high speeds, ideal for applications in THz communications, imaging, and sensing.

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