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Sex Transm Infect. 2014 Jun;90(4):337-43. doi: 10.1136/sextrans-2013-051230. Epub 2014 Jan 30.

High-risk human papillomavirus viral load and persistence among heterosexual HIV-negative and HIV-positive men.

Author information

  • 1Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
  • 2Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda.
  • 3Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda School of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
  • 4Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda.
  • 5Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine, Serdang, Malaysia.
  • 6Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
  • 7Department of Urology, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
  • 8Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
  • 9Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) viral load is associated with HR-HPV transmission and HR-HPV persistence in women. It is unknown whether HR-HPV viral load is associated with persistence in HIV-negative or HIV-positive men.

METHODS:

HR-HPV viral load and persistence were evaluated among 703 HIV-negative and 233 HIV-positive heterosexual men who participated in a male circumcision trial in Rakai, Uganda. Penile swabs were tested at baseline and 6, 12 and 24 months for HR-HPV using the Roche HPV Linear Array, which provides a semiquantitative measure of HPV shedding by hybridisation band intensity (graded: 1-4). Prevalence risk ratios (PRR) were used to estimate the association between HR-HPV viral load and persistent detection of HR-HPV.

RESULTS:

HR-HPV genotypes with high viral load (grade:3-4) at baseline were more likely to persist than HR-HPV genotypes with low viral load (grade: 1-2) among HIV-negative men (month 6: adjPRR=1.83, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.52; month 12: adjPRR=2.01, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.11), and HIV-positive men (month 6: adjPRR=1.33, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.67; month 12: adjPRR=1.73, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.54). Long-term persistence of HR-HPV was more frequent among HIV-positive men compared with HIV-negative men (month 24: adjPRR=2.27, 95% CI 1.47 to 3.51). Persistence of newly detected HR-HPV at the 6-month and 12-month visits with high viral load were also more likely to persist to 24 months than HR-HPV with low viral load among HIV-negative men (adjPRR=1.67, 95% CI 0.88 to 3.16).

CONCLUSIONS:

HR-HPV genotypes with high viral load are more likely to persist among HIV-negative and HIV-positive men, though persistence was more common among HIV-positive men overall. The results may explain the association between high HR-HPV viral load and HR-HPV transmission.

Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

KEYWORDS:

AFRICA; CIRCUMCISION; HIV; HPV

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