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Trends Parasitol. 2014 Mar;30(3):113-4. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2014.01.002. Epub 2014 Jan 24.

Free-living bodonids and derived parasitic trypanosomatids: but what lies in between?

Author information

  • Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QD, UK. Electronic address: J.R.Stevens@exeter.ac.uk.


Inclusion of suitable out-group taxa has been of particular importance in accurate reconstruction of evolutionary relationships among trypanosomatids. However, the persistence of researchers focusing on insect trypansomatids appears to have paid off, and a novel, apparently-monoxenous parasite isolated from mosquitoes has recently been characterised. Critically, phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses robustly position this new species, Paratrypanosoma confusum, between free-living bodonid out-group taxa and other trypanosomatids, thereby overcoming some of the issues associated with previously utilised out-groups.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Paratrypanosoma confusum; bodonid; monoxenous; trypanosomatid

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