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Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(12):7301-7.

Determinants of participation in a breast cancer screening trial in trivandrum district, India.

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  • 1Early Detection and Prevention, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France E-mail :



Conspicuous differences in participation rates for breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE), and referral for further investigations have been observed indicating involvement of a number of different factors. This study analysed determinants for participation in different levels of the breast cancer screening process in Indian females.


An intervention group of 52,011 women was interviewed in a breast cancer screening trial in Trivandrum district, India. In order to assess demographic, socio-economic, reproductive, and cancer-related determinants of participation in BSE, CBE, and referral, uni- and multi-variate logistic regression was employed.


Of the interviewed women, 23.2% reported practicing BSE, 96.8% had attended CBE, and 49.1% of 2,880 screen-positives attended referral. Results showed an influence of various determinants on participation; women who were currently not married or who had no family history of cancer were significantly less likely to attend the screening process at any level.


Increasing awareness about breast cancer, early detection methods, and the advantages of early diagnoses among women, and their families, as well as health care workers offering social support, could help to increase participation over the entire screening process in India.

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