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Int J Food Microbiol. 2014 Mar 17;174:23-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.12.029. Epub 2014 Jan 7.

Meta-analysis of D-values of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum and its surrogate strain Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679.

Author information

  • 1INRA, UMR1014 Secalim, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3, France; LUNAM Université, Oniris, Nantes, France.
  • 2CTCPA, Unité de microbiologie, ZA de l'aéroport, 84911 Avignon, France.
  • 3INRA, UMR1014 Secalim, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3, France; LUNAM Université, Oniris, Nantes, France. Electronic address: Jeanne-marie.membre@oniris-nantes.fr.

Abstract

Foodborne botulism is a serious disease resulting from ingestion of preformed Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin in foodstuff. Since the 19th century, the heat resistance of this spore forming bacteria has been extensively studied in order to guarantee the public health associated with low acidic, ambient stable products. The most largely used heat resistance parameters in thermal settings of such products are the D121.1°C values (time required to have a 10-fold decrease of the spore count, at 121.1°C) and the z-values (temperature increase to have a 10-fold decrease of D-values). To determine D121.1°C and z-values of proteolytic C. botulinum and its nontoxigenic surrogate strain C. sporogenes PA3679, a dataset of 911 D-values was collected from 38 scientific studies. Within a meta-analysis framework, a mixed-effect linear model was developed with the log D-value (min) as response and the heat treatment temperature as explicative variable. The studies (38), the C. botulinum strains (11), and the heat treatment media (liquid media and various food matrices, split into nine categories in total) were considered as co-variables having a random effect. The species (C. botulinum and C. sporogenes) and the pH (five categories) were considered as co-variables having a fixed effect. Overall, the model gave satisfactory results with a residual standard deviation of 0.22. The heat resistance of proteolytic C. botulinum was found significantly lower than the C. sporogenes PA 3679 one: the mean D-values at the reference temperature of 121.1°C, in liquid media and pH neutral, were estimated to 0.19 and 1.28min for C. botulinum and C. sporogenes, respectively. On the other hand, the mean z-values of the two species were similar: 11.3 and 11.1°C for C. botulinum and C. sporogenes, respectively. These results will be applied to thermal settings of low-acid ambient stable products.

Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

KEYWORDS:

Bayesian inference; Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679; Heat resistance; Mixed effect model; Z-values

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