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Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Apr;66:56-64. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2014.01.019. Epub 2014 Jan 18.

TOP 1 and 2, polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale, inhibit NFκB-mediated inflammation and accelerate Nrf2-induced antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.

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  • 1Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Dong-Eui University, Busan, Republic of Korea.
  • 2School of Biotechnology and Biomedical Sciences, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea.
  • 3Department of Smart Foods and Drugs, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:


Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale (TOP 1 and 2) were analyzed in RAW 264.7 cells. First, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was applied to identify anti-inflammatory activity of TOPs, which reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. TOPs treatment inhibited phosphorylation of inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)κB, and its upstream signaling molecule, PI3K/Akt. Second, cytoprotective potential of TOPs against oxidative stress was investigated via heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction. HO-1, one of phase II enzymes shows antioxidative activity, was potently induced by TOPs treatment, which was in accordance with the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In addition, TOPs treatment phosphorylated PI3K/Akt with slight activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). TOPs-mediated HO-1 induction protected macrophage cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death, which was confirmed by SnPP and CoPP (HO-1 inhibitor and inducer, respectively). Consequently, TOPs potently inhibited NFκB-mediated inflammation and accelerated Nrf2-mediated antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway, which would contribute to their promising strategy for novel anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents.

Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Anti-inflammatory; Antioxidative; NFκB; Nrf2; PI3KAkt; Taraxacum officinale polysaccharide

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